The three players had been named in an initial 24-man list of nominees last month and will now battle it out for the prize on October 23 in London.
The award, which covers the period of November 20, 2016, to July 2, 2017, is voted for by national team coaches, captains, selected media and fans.
Ronaldo is favourite to win the award for the second year running, after a year that saw him help Real Madrid to a third Champions League crown in four seasons and a first La Liga title in five years, as well as the FIFA Club World Cup.
He however faces competition from long-time rival Lionel Messi, who finished as La Liga’s top scorer with 37 goals and helped Barcelona to Copa del Rey success.
Neymar, who finished third in the 2015 Ballon d’Or voting, is also in contention. The Brazilian became the world’s most expensive player this summer, when he left Barcelona for Paris Saint-Germain in a €222 million deal.
The three finalists for The Best FIFA Goalkeeper, a new award this year, are Juventus’ Gianluigi Buffon, Real Madrid’s Keylor Navas and Bayern Munich’s Manuel Neuer